The institutional evolution of the representative government in liberal Italy (1861-1922) and Republican Brazil (1891-1930)

According to the literature, the main feature of the relationship between the executive and the legislative branches in the Brazilian First Republic is equilibrium. In contrast to the first Republican decade, with the disruption of the existing institutional apparatus which would have led to a chaotic environment, it is believed that the years that followed the government of President Campos Sales were marked by political and institutional normalization and the beginning of what would become the longest lasting formula in national history, articulated in the Governors’ Pact. The hypothesis of this research is that the apparent stability of the regime does not correspond to a harmony of interests between these power spheres. In other words, a conflict between them did exist and this research seeks precisely to shed light on these facts by studying bills vetoed during the Constitutional Reform of 1926 and the subsequent period.

From Fernanda Machado and Giancarlo Casellato Gozzi.